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Aufaq Bahjatul Wasa'il Bajuri Barzanji Bidayah Hidayah Bidayatul Mujtahid Bughyah Bulugul Marom Busyrol Karim Dahlan Al-fiyah Dairobi Dala'il Khoirot Daqo'iqul Akbar Dardiri Mi'roj Dasuqi Durotun Nasihin Fathul Jawad Fathul Majid Fathul Mu'in Fathul Qorib 8.
Fathul Wahab Ghoyatul Wusul Hidayatul Mustafid 9. Hikam Husunul Hamidiyah I'anatut Tholibin Ibanatul Ahkam Ibnu Aqil Ibnu Hamdun Ihya' Imriti Inarotud Duja Iqna' Irsyadul Ibad Is'adur-rofiq Itmamu Diroyah Ilmu tafsir 9. Jami'us-shoghir Jawahirul Bukhori Jawahirul Kalamiyah 9. Kafrowi Kailani Kasyifatus-saja Kawakibu Duriyah Kholasoh Nurul Yakin Khozinatul Asror Kifayatul Ahyar Kifayatul Ashab Kifayatul Awam Kifayatul Atqiyak Lato'iful Isyaroh Mabadi Fiqh Madarijus-su'ud Mahally Majalisus Saniyah Majmu'Ma'na Nadoman Makudi Mamba' usululul Hikmah Manaqib 9.
Maqsud Mauidhotul Mu'minin Minahus Saniyah 9. Minhajul Abidin Minhajul Qowim Minhatul Mughits Mizan Kubro Jakarta: HTI Press. This movement focuses on urging individual to reform and renewal their faiths by performing religious duties and rituals properly and avoiding political sphere cf.
Clarke, P. New trends and developments in the world of Islam. London: Luzac Oriental. Hyderabad: Orient Longman. These movements become interesting phenomena to be contested with traditionalist, represented by NU with its pesantren networks, at least for some reasons. Firstly, as mentioned, contemporary Salafi movements have named their institution mostly using the term pesantren and focus their dakwah target usually within rural areas.
Thirdly, there is no single authority within these movements that lead all contemporary Salafi movements. Previous studies on contemporary Salafi movements have shown a problematic use of the term Salafi.
The word salafi is derived from the word salaf A. In the recent development of Islam in Indonesian, the word salafi has different interpretation with the word salafiyah. Salafi is commonly used to refer to Islamic groups that are strictly limited their religious authority to three generations of the Prophet era and, to some extent, have similar characteristics of Wahhabism.
Nashir, for example, divided salafiyah into four categories: traditionalist, modernist or revivalist, dakwah, and ideologist. Azyumardi Azra is also using this broader sense of salafiyah. He stated that Salafiyah movements has many forms, ranging from those who concentrate mainly on dakwah or education, social welfare, to those 28 There is an example of NU pesantren turned into Salafi pesantren such as what happened in Pesantren Maskumambang in Gresik, see: Duta Masyarakat, 13 April Besides, pesantren, according to ICG reports becomes the main means in disseminating Salafism aside of constructing mosques and publications.
However, the issue of hizbiyah or party-like has become a huge dispute among the Salafis and have become different characteristic compare to other Islamic revivalist, such as Muslim Brotherhood and Hizb at-Tahrir Hasan, b, pp. The success of these dakwah cannot be separated from the generous financial support from Middle East countries, especially Saudi Arabia and Kuwait through some Salafi foundations established across the country.
Beside these two figures, there are of course 31 See: Azra, Noor, Y. Bruinessen Eds. The policy to invite the USA had criticised and divided Salafi leaders into two big factions: those who agreed and opposed to the policy. It refers to a literalist group formed as a respond to the arbitration between Ali, the fourth caliph, and Muawiyah upon the Shiffin battle. This group declared both Ali and Muawiyah as kafir or infidels for not using the law of Allah.
A negative impression of this group is predicted by some Hadith and believed by most Sunnis. For detailed account on this group, see cf. Gibb, ; C. Nasution, Aliran-Aliran Islam modern di Indonesia. Jogjakarta: Fakultas Ushuluddin Institut Agama Islam Negeri Sunan Kalidjaga; and Watt, 36 Quthby means those who follow the idea of Sayyid Qutb, especially his idea on radical interpretation of jihad, including his opinion on obliging Muslims to rebel the government Kepel G.
London: I. Algar, Trans. New Jersey: Islamic Publication International. Brussels: International Crisis Group 38 Salafi Haraki means Salafi groups that considered as having a form of harakah organisation or movement or at least has relation with Harakah movements such as Muslim Brotherhood, Jamaah Tabligh, and so forth, including some foundations such as al-Haramayn and al-Turoth.
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Within Salafi context, some of Salafis prefer to divide contemporary Salafi into: Salafi Jihadi in similar meaning to Yamani and Moderate in the similar meaning to Haraki instead of Haraki and Yamani. The first issue is concerning whether it is permissible to rebel to unjust and oppressive Muslim government. In this case, Yamani faction will say yes but Haraki side will reject the idea.
The second issue is about hizbiyah or party-like. Yamani bans the notion of party-ism, while Haraki tends to adopt certain level of organisation to achieve their political aims.
The third issue is the concept of jihad. The last key issue, they differ on tactics and acceptable methodology to achieve their goals. Apart from these dynamics of contemporary Salafi movements in Indonesia, their rapid growth through fully-funded organisations and foundations, are openly challenging the NU pesantren, at least to attract and gain students at any level.
Besides, as puritanical movements, contemporary Salafi movements would always place an issue of bidah as their main agenda to be changed. In this case, NU pesantren will directly be challenged since most members of NU pesantren are considered as mubtadi in the eye of contemporary Salafi communities. In sum, how NU pesantren encounters with the phenomenon of mushrooming Salafi pesantren will determine the future of both different types of pesantren in colouring the development of Islamic education in Indonesia.
Jakarta: Rajawali Press. The necessity to understand the meaning of pesantren here is based on the complex development of pesantren nowadays. However, recent development indicates that the term pesantren is not merely associated with NU.
Most Islamic groups nowadays named their educational institution with the word pesantren. So, people will easily recognise their affiliation to certain Islamic organisations. This kind of sign is not apparent anymore, especially with the rise of contemporary Salafi movements which have tended to use the word pesantren directly followed by the name of pesantren like what traditionalist Muslims have done in naming their pesantren.
Usually the word pesantren refers to a place where the santri devotes most of his or her time to live in and 40 See R. Zaman, Schooling Islam : the culture and politics of modern Muslim education.
Princeton, N. Sihbudi, Eds. Islam dan Radikalisme di Indonesia.
Di indonesia terdapat enam kepercayaan yang diakui
Jakarta: Rajawali Press; Dhofier, Z. Bandung: Pustaka Hidayah. Furthermore, he explained that the word santri in the modern Indonesian language has two meaning: In its narrow meaning, the word santri means a student of religious institution called pondok or pesantren…while the broader meaning of the word santri refers to a part of Javanese people who truly follow Islam, perform daily prayer, and other religious obligations.
By focusing the term santri in a narrow perspective, this research becomes more applicable in explaining how santri under the NU pesantren respond to the rise of contemporary Salafi movements, which are considered of having another variant of santri and pesantren. These previous studies indicated the unique characteristics of pesantren affiliated with the NU that can be used as a guidance to distinguish with other forms of pesantren, especially through its norms and value systems.
According to Dhofier, for example, there are five basic elements of pesantren: the pondok, the mosque, the santri, the teaching of classical Islamic texts, and the kyai. Mukti Ali explains that pesantren at least has following characteristics: 1 There is a close relationship between santri and kyai because they live in the same place; 2 the obedience of santri toward their kyai; 3 modest or simple life is really applied in their everyday life; 4 a spirit of giving mutual aid among the santri is so stressed to 44 See A.
Furthermore, he explains that there are three basic elements of pesantren that should be noted regarding its function as a subculture: 1 an autonomous pattern of leadership of pesantren, which is free from the state intervention, 2 yellow books or kitab kuning that have been used for centuries, and 3 a value system that used in a pesantren is a part of value system of society.
The leadership of kyai in pesantren is so unique because it based on a pre-modern system of leadership. Wahid, Pesantren dan pembaharuan Cet. Pesantren has been considered as a centre of Sufism, especially in a traditional form of Sufism, see J. Howell, Sufism and the Indonesian Islamic Revival. The Journal of Asian Studies, 60 3 , Jakarta: LP3ES. Apart from these formal limitations of the values of Aswaja, it can be noted that Aswaja is an alternative school within Islam that has tried to combine opposite groups in Islam, jabariyah or predestination and qadariyah or free will.
Therefore, for most traditionalist Muslims in Indonesia, especially those who have an educational background of pesantren, they will always use the kitab kuning as their main references in making any decision regarding some religious problems, including new problems, 51 See N. Bakar, Hadis Tarbiyah [Hadith on Education].
Tijan Durori Makna Pesantren
Surabaya: al- Ikhlas. In facing new problems they usually try to find some similarities with the old problem from the kitab kuning by analogizing the essentials of the new problems and comparing with the old ones. An interesting example can be mentioned here is about the ethical problem of test- tube babies. In this case, most kyai based their argument on the explanation of the kitab kuning about the important status of marriage and nasab or descent, and also supported by medical reasons.
They came to the conclusion that test-tube babies are allowed as long as the ovum and the sperm are come from a married couple because it will guarantee the status of the baby from the Islamic perspective.
This belief in kitab kuning, however, has limitation only to the works of those who come from the same school.
What the modernist Muslims did through their campaign, according to traditionalist Muslims, is dangerous for the future of Islam because it urged people to have their own version of understanding Islam without considering their ability in mastering some basic Islamic knowledge. Therefore, following the traditions, including the works of the classical Islamic scholars, is far safer for those who have incomprehensive knowledge of Islam.
The culture of taqlid or following the ulama within the pesantren tradition has its justification through the basic value system of pesantren.
Jakarta: INIS. Bruinessen, Kitab Kuning: Pesantren dan Tarekat. Bandung: Mizan. Above all, preserving good traditions is the main characteristic of the value system within pesantren. In its original form, there are two rituals related with wiwit: tedhun, which is a ritual held before farmers starting to plant the paddy in their fields tandur, or planting and wiwit, which is a ritual held before harvesting paddy as gratitude on the existence of abundant harvest.
There are several reasons why wiwit is not conducted anymore in the majority of peasant communities across Java, especially in Yogyakarta, ranging from economical, practicality, planting system, to the religious one. My concern here is to look at how religious reason is constructed to create a negative image of wiwit within community, particularly related to the rise of contemporary Salafi movement in rural communities. Before discussing it, it is important to understand the whole process of wiwit ceremony.
Wiwit ceremony begins with preparing offerings, which usually consists of tumpeng rice, ingkung the whole chicken , sambel kedelai soybean sauce , boiled eggs, gudangan vegetables , entho-entho traditional snack made from cassava or sweet potatoes , salted fish, fruits, tobacco, and some kinds of fried beans.
The core of the prayer is to thanks to God or Devi Sri for giving them a good harvest and hoping the better one for the next planting period. While reciting a prayer, usually modin is also burning some incense. After the utter of prayers, modin will guide two participants, usually unmarried men and women, to cut some of the rice stalk that will be considered as the bridge rice.
The bridge rice is then will be taken back to the house of the owners. Along 56 See S. Kedaulatan Rakyat, 57 It is often that different places will have slightly different standard of offerings for Wiwit.
In some places, they add some flowers and incenses.
Just after the event finished with the communal meals, the rice in the fields is ready for harvest. According to the modin, for the first time he led this ceremony, the notion of Devi Sri is only considered as a symbol of the generosity of God. So, wiwit, according to him, is a form of how Javanese peasants gratitude to God for giving them abundant harvest.
Another evident that this ritual has been Islamised is unwritten rule on determining a good day for conducting it.
Tijan Durori Makna Pesantren
He pointed out that wiwit ritual cannot be conducted on Friday because Friday is considered as the day for Wali. The acculturative pattern of dakwah by transforming wiwit into the Islamic tradition has made Javanese people accepted Islam peacefully. The culture of the Indonesian people, especially Javanese people, who always acts accordance to the concept of harmony between macro and micro cosmos show a strong rejection to something that tend to create dispute or conflict in the community.
The emergence of the Salafi Dakwah movements that focuses on the ideas of purification, especially in the aspect of ibadah, or liturgy, has been created a dilemma for the continuity of wiwit tradition.
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Salafi Dakwah activists, based on their strict belief of monotheism, will easily stamp those who participated in the wiwit tradition as committed syirik, or polytheists.
This uncompromised judgment made farmers, who have a limited knowledge of Islam, more reluctant to perform wiwit tradition. Although, as already mentioned, there are other factors that also contribute to the decrease of tradition wiwit, such as the economics burden, the different time of planting, and the decrease of agricultural land, but religious claims from Salafi Dakwah activist can not be ignored as such.
This fact is drawn on several questions concerning tradition wiwit delivered by some farmers, in Thursday night forum, who are still hesitant to perform the wiwit ceremony because of the opinions of the Salafi Dakwah activists.
Labeling wiwit tradition as a syirik is ignoring 58 See: R. Dwi, , Upacara Wiwit [Wiwit Ceremony]. For a long time, wiwit tradition is commonly seen as one form of expression of gratitude to God for a plenteous agricultural harvest.
When this kind of argument presented to the Dakwah Salafi activists, they still insisted that wiwit tradition as a form of diversion of Islamic belief. The existence of the offerings, then, has been used as a further reason to reject wiwit tradition. It appears very difficult to find a meeting point between the Salafi Dakwah values with local culture, especially when we see the way Salafi Dakwah activists interpret Islamic tenets literally.
This literal way of thinking has serious implication on rejecting the existence of religious symbols. Meanwhile, one of the most obvious characteristics of the wiwit tradition, and other traditions of local cultures, is the use of symbols both in behaviours and materials, such as through various forms of offerings. At this point, pesantren can play a significant role to maintain and continue the dakwah model of walisongo by providing theological bases of wiwit tradition through rethinking the meaning of symbolic performance of wiwit tradition for society.
Furthermore, this re- evaluation of the meanings of wiwit or other local traditions is important because many young generations have lost the importance meaning of some local traditions. I think, the most effective way to re- create this meaning is by using both theologically and scientifically so that it does not seem as apology efforts only for the purpose of preserving local traditions.Mataram Jakarta: At this point, pesantren can play a significant role to maintain and continue the dakwah model of walisongo by providing theological bases of wiwit tradition through rethinking the meaning of symbolic performance of wiwit tradition for society.
Therefore, traditional puppet show which was part Islam Nusantara takes a brave endeavor to of poly-theistic ritual of Hinduism was keep these different cultural expressions changed and transformed to become a of religiosity alive in harmony and enrich popular instrument for the sake of Islamic each other as well. Maqsud Prenada Media, , p.
Ibanah namun barbahariy menolak isi kitab itu dan beliau kurang terkenal baghdad hingga dia hengkang dari daerah baghdad. Tausyeh Karel A. Majmu'Ma'na Nadoman